Recruitment is the process of identifying the prospective employees, stimulating and encouraging them to apply for a particular job or jobs in an organization. It is a positive action as it involves inviting people to apply. The purpose is to have an inventory of eligible persons from amongst whom proper selection of the most suitable person can be made.
THE PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT
Preparation for Recruitment
Before you think of inviting people to apply for a job you have to decide what types of persons are to be invited and what their characteristics should be. This calls for fixing the ‘job specifications’ which may also be called ‘man specifications’.
Job specifications are based on job description which is dependent upon the nature and requirements of a job. Thus, job specification will be different for each job.
We shall explain below the various elements of job specification.
Physical Specifications : For certain jobs some special features may be required. For example, for assembly of a TV set or some other electronic equipment good vision is required, for a typing job you need finger dexterity, for a heavy job you need a strong, heavy and thick-set body. The particular physical abilities and skills necessary for a given job have to be specified. These may refer to height, weight, vision, finger dexterity, voice, poise, hand and foot coordination, motor coordination, colour discrimination, age-range, etc.
Mental Specifications : These include intelligence, memory, judgment, ability-plan, ability to estimate, to read, to write, to think and concentrate, scientific faculties, arithmetical abilities, etc. Different jobs require different degrees of such abilities and the more important ones should be specified.
Emotional and Social Specifications : These include characteristics which will affect his working with others, like personal appearance, manners, emotional stability, aggressiveness, or submissiveness, extroversion or introversion, leadership, cooperativeness, initiative and drive, skill in dealing with others, social adaptability, etc.
Behavioral Specifications : Certain management personnel at higher levels of management are expected to behave in a particular manner. These are not formally listed but have to be kept in mind during the process of recruitment, selection and placement.
SOURCES OF MANPOWER
There are two categories of sources of supply of manpower-Internal and External.
Internal Sources : These include personnel already on the pay-roll of the organization as also those who were once on the pay-roll of the company but who plan to return, or whom the company, would like to rehire. These include those who quit voluntarily or those on production lay-offs.
External Sources : These sources lie outside the organization, like the new entrants to the labour force without experience. These include college students, the unemployed with a wider range of skills and abilities, the retired experienced persons, and others not in the labour force, like married women.
A policy of preferring people from within is advantageous as it improves the morale of the employees and promotes loyalty among them towards the organization. This also helps employers as they are in a better position to evaluate those already with them and as these people require no induction.
The policy of preferring internal candidates, however, suffers from some disadvantages. It may lead to inbreeding, discouraging new blood from entering an organization. If promotion is based on seniority, the real capable hands may be left out.
Likewise, there are good and bad points about external sources. These sources provide a wide market and the best selection considering skill, training and education. It also helps to bring new ideas into the organization. Moreover, this source never ‘dries up’. In respect of people selected under this system, however, one has to take chances with the selected persons regarding their loyalty and desire to continue. The organization has to make larger investments in their training and induction.
METHODS OF RECRUITMENT
Method of Recruitment can be put into three categories :
- Direct method
- Indirect methods
- Third party method.
1. DIRECT METHODS includes sending recruiters to educational and professional institutions, employee contact with the public, manned exhibits and waiting lists.
Colleges and Professional Institutions like Agricultural colleges, Engineer colleges, Diploma schools are usually the best source of recruiting professionals for our consultancy organization. These institutions usually have a placement officer who normally provides help in attracting employers arranging the interviews, furnishing space and other facilities and providing student resumes. Our organization maintains a list of such institutions, keep touch with them, send them our brochure indicating job openings, future prospects, etc. On the basis of these students who want to be considered for the given jobs are referred to our recruitment panel.
Employee contact with the public : The employees of our organization are told about the existence of particular vacancies and they bring this to the notice of their relatives, friends and acquaintances.
Manned exhibits : Our organization send recruiters to conventions and seminars, setting up exhibition at fairs and using mobile offices to go to the desired centers.
Waiting list : Also sometimes depends on our application folders. These records list individuals who have indicated their interest in jobs, either after visiting the organisation’s employment office or making enquiries by mail or phone. Such records prove a very useful source if they are kept up-to-date.
2. INDIRECT METHODS : it cover the advertising in newspapers, on the radio, in trade and professional journals, technical journals and brochures.
When qualified and experienced persons are not available through internal sources, advertising in newspapers and professional and technical journals is made. Where as all type of posts are advertised in newspapers and magazines only particular types of posts are advertised in Professional and technical journals.
3. THIRD-PARTY METHODS: Various agencies are used for recruitment under these methods. These include commercial and private employment agencies, state agencies, placement officer of colleges and universities, professional associations, recruiting firms, indoctrination seminars for college professors, friends and relatives.
In this category our organization ECO-CARE AND AWARE mainly uses web based recruiting and networking sites like Naukri.com, jobs.com, Linkedin.com, Facebook.com, Orissacareer.com, monster.com, craiglists.org, devnetjobsindia.com etc. Many new sites are coming which provide the services of job listing (advertisement) free of cost.
Executive search agencies maintain complete information records about employed executives and recommend persons of high calibre for managerial, marketing and of other professional areas as required by the organization.
Indoctrination of Seminars for college professors : these are arranged to discuss the problems of companies to which professors are invited. Visits and banquets are arranged so that professors may be favourably be impressed and later speak well of the company and help in getting required personnel.
Friends and relatives of the present employees constitute a good source from which employees may be drawn. Also steps are taken to avoid nepotism in this categories.