WAGE STRUCTURE IN INDIA

Wage Structure in IndiaThe employee benefit package normally contains apart from basic wage, a dearness allowance, overtime payment, annual bonus, incentive systems, and a host of fringe benefits. 

BASIC WAGE

The concept of basic wage is contained in the report of the Fair Wages Committee. According to this Committee, the floor of the basic pay is the “minimum wage” which provides “not merely for the bare sustenance of life but for the preservation of the efficiency of the workers by providing some measure of education, medical requirements and amenities.” The basic wage has been the most stable and fixed as compared to dearness allowance and annual bonus which usually change with movements in the cost of living indices and the performance of the industry. 

DEARNESS ALLOWANCE

The fixation of wage structure also includes within its compass a fixation of rates of dearness allowance. In the context of a changing pattern of prices and consumption, real wages of the workmen are likely to fluctuate greatly. Ultimately, it is the goods and services that a worker buys with the help of wages that are an important consideration for him. The real wages of the workmen thus require to be protected when there is a rise in prices and a consequent increase in the cost of living by suitable adjustments in these wages. In foreign countries, these adjustments in wages are effected automatically with the rise or fall in the cost of living.

In India, the system of dearness allowance is a special feature of the wage system for adjustment of the wages when there are frequent fluctuations in the cost of living. In India, at present, there are several systems of paying dearness allowance to the employees to meet the changes in the cost of living. In practice, they differ from place to place and industry to industry.

One of the methods of paying dearness allowance is by a flat rate, under which a fixed amount is paid to all categories of workers, irrespective of their wage scales.

The second method is its linkage with consumer price index numbers published periodically by the government. It indicates the changes in the prices of a fixed basket of goods and services customarily bought by the families of workers. In other words, the index shows the rise or fall in the cost of living due a rise or fall in consumer prices.

The third method of paying dearness allowance is on a graduated scale according to slabs. Under this method, workers are divided into groups according to the slabs of wage scales to whom fixed amounts of dearness allowance are paid on a graduated scale. After a limit, there will not be any increase in the amount of dearness allowance at all, however high the wage rate may be. This method is popular because it is convenient and also considered to be equitable. 

OVERTIME PAYMENT

Working overtime in industry is possibly as old as the industrial revolution. The necessity of the managements’ seeking overtime working from employees becomes inevitable mainly to overcome inappropriate allocation of manpower and improper scheduling, absenteeism, unforeseen situations created due to genuine difficulties like breakdown of machines. In many companies, overtime is necessary to meet urgent delivery dates, sudden upswings in production schedules, or to give management a degree of flexibility in matching labour capacity to production demands.

The payment of overtime allowance to the factory and workshop employees is guaranteed by law. All employees who are deemed to be workers under the Factories Act or under the Minimum Wages Act are entitled to it at twice the ordinary rate of their wages for the work done in excess of 9 hours on any day or for more than 48 hours in any week. The major benefit of overtime working to workers is that it offers an increase in income from work. 

ANNUAL BONUS

The bonus component of the industrial compensation system, though a quite old one, had assumed a statutory status only with the enactment of the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965. The Act is applicable to factories and other establishments employing 20 or more employees. The Act has statutorily imposed an obligation on the employer to pay bonus to employees at the minimum rate of 8.33 per cent of the salary earned. The maximum is fixed at 20 per cent. The Act has restricted payment of bonus to employees drawing wages or salaries up to rupees 3,500 per mensem. In cases of those eligible employees whose salary is more than rupees 3,500 per month, it is computed at rupees 2,500 per month. The quantum of bonus under the Act is dependent upon “available surplus”. 

INCENTIVE SYSTEMS

The term “incentive” has been used both in the restricted sense of participation and in the widest sense of financial motivation. It is used to signify inducements offered to employees to put forth their best in order to maximise production results.

Incentives are classified as financial and non-financial. Important financial incentives are attractive wages, bonus, dearness allowance, traveling allowance, housing allowance, gratuity, pension, and provident fund contributions. Some of the nonfinancial incentives are designation, nature of the job, working conditions, status, privileges, job security, opportunity for advancement and participation in decision making. However, a vast diversity exists in regard to policy and practice of incentive payments.

Incentive systems also have been classified into three groups: individual wage incentive plan, group incentive scheme, and organisation-wide incentive system.

The individual wage incentive plan is the extra compensation paid to an individual over a specified amount for his production effort. Individual incentive systems are based upon certain norms established by work measurement techniques such as past performance, bargaining between union and the management, time study, standard data, predetermined elemental times and work sampling. There are four types of individual incentive systems such as measured day-work, piece-work standard, group plans and gains-sharing plans. Under the measured day-work incentive wage system, an individual receives his regular hourly rate of pay, irrespective of his performance. Piece-work system form the most simple and frequently used incentive wage. In this, individual’s earnings are direct and proportionate to their output. Group plans embody a guaranteed base rate to the workers in which the performance over standard is rewarded by a proportionate premium over base pay. Gains-sharing system involves a disproportionate increase in monetary rewards for increasing output beyond a predetermined standard. As the gains are shared with the entrepreneurs, the worker gets less than one per cent increment in wage for every one percent increase in output.

The group or area incentive scheme provides for the payment of a bonus either equally or proportionately to individuals within a group or area. The bonus is related to the output achieved over an agreed standard or to the time saved on the job – the difference between allowed time and actual time. Such schemes may be most appropriate where: (a) people have to work together and teamwork has to be encouraged; and (b) high levels of production depend a great deal on the cooperation existing among a team of workers as compared with the individual efforts of team members.

The organisation-wide incentive system involves cooperation among employees and the management and purports to accomplish broader organisational objectives such as: (i) to reduce labour, material and supply costs; (ii) to strengthen loyalty to the company; (iii) to promote harmonious labour-management relations; and (iv) to decrease turnover and absenteeism.

One of the aspects of organisation-wide incentive system is profit sharing under which an employee receives a share of the profit fixed in advance under an agreement freely entered into. The major objective of the profit sharing system is to strengthen the unity of interest and the spirit of cooperation. Some of the advantages of such a scheme are:

(i) it inculcates in employees’ a sense of economic discipline as regards wage costs and productivity;

(ii) it engenders improved communication and increased sense of participation; (iii) it is relatively simple and its cost of administration is low; and

(iv) it is non-inflationary, if properly devised.

One of the essentials of a sound profit sharing system is that it should not be treated as a substitute for adequate wages but provide something extra to the Participants. Full support and cooperation of the union is to be obtained in implementing such a scheme.

FRINGE BENEFITS

The remuneration that the employees receive for their contribution cannot be measured by the mere estimation of wages and salaries paid to them. Certain supplementary benefits and services known as “fringe benefits” are also available to them. The characteristics of fringe benefits are:

1) These benefits are distinctly additional to the regular wages paid to the workers. As such, they are not provided as a substitute for wages or salaries of the employees.

2) These benefits are meant primarily to be of advantage to the employees.

3) The advantages accrued to the employees through the provision of fringe benefits are as such they cannot be secured through their own individual efforts.

4) Only those benefits fall within the purview of fringe benefits which are or can be expressed in cash terms.

5) The scope of fringe benefits is different from that of welfare services. Fringe benefits are provided by the employers alone whereas welfare services may be provided by other agencies as well. Benefits that have no relation to employment should not be regarded as fringe benefits.

Fringe benefits have been classified in several ways. In terms of their objectives, Meggison classifies them into two groups: those providing for employees’ security and those purporting to increase employees’ job satisfaction causing reduction in labour turnover and improvement in productivity. The former group includes retirement programmes, workmen’s compensation, unemployment compensation, social insurance, and other provisions. The later group incorporates vacations, holidays, sick leave, discounts on company goods and services, and allied tangible and intangible benefits.

Fringe benefits are also categorised as statutory, contractual, and voluntary. Statutory benefits include social security and medical care, unemployment compensation, workmen’s compensation, provident fund, and gratuity. The benefits provided by the employers in pursuance of agreements with workers may include dearness allowance, house rent allowance, city compensatory allowance, medical allowance, night-shift allowance, heat allowance, transport, housing and educational allowances. Voluntary fringe benefits which are provided unilaterally by the company include group insurance, death benevolent fund, washing allowance, leave encashment, leave travel concession, conveyance allowance, incentive for family planning, service awards, and suggestion awards.

Currently fringe benefits are a significant part of employee compensation system and the employees tend to take them for granted and do not link these items with wages or income as they do not have any direct bearing on payments. They are no more on the fringe of compensation but form an integral component of individual’s earnings involving spiralling costs for the company. However, the fringe benefit system can become effective if attempts are made to gear them to the needs of human resource in organisational settings. 

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